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Evaluating the potential of microfinance for sanitation in Tanzania, 2013.

Sophie Trémolet, George Muruka. The objectives of the case study are to investigate how household financing for sanitation can be mobilized via microfinance institutions, community banks and mass market commercial banks in order to accelerate sustainable access to sanitation facilities and/or services.

The research conducted in Tanzania is exploratory in nature. It seeks to map out the existing provision of microfinance for sanitation, to identify where opportunities for future market development lie and to identify how the development of such a market could be fostered (through the targeted use of public funds or regulatory changes for example). The case study in Tanzania will feed into broader research about how donors can channel financing for water and sanitation to small-scale actors.

Developing and Monitoring Protocol for the Elimination of Open Defecation in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2013. UNICEF.

Eliminating open defecation is increasingly seen as a key health outcome, with links to reduced stunting, improved  educational and positive health outcomes for children. In Sub Saharan Africa, over 35 countries are implementing some form of CLTS, ranging from TATS in Tanzania to CLTSH in Ethiopia. Since the introduction of CLTS in 2005 in the region, rapid scale-up has been achieved with suggested numbers of ODF communities in the range of 30,000 affecting over 15 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several countries have set aggressive targets for

elimination of Open Defecation in rural areas for the next five years which often include not only safe disposal of faeces but hand washing facilities, cleanliness and solid waste management. Sustaining the progress made through the application of the CLTSprocessisemerging as a challenge with experience suggesting that sustainability is determined by the process followed to achieve ODF. Rapid scale up in SSA is arguably linked to the fact that CLTS is based on the concept of triggering community-wide behavior change, requires no subsidies and integrates easily into existing health programming structures. Current focus is on ‘triggering’ communities into action; while considerably less resources and emphasis on following up and mentoring of communities ‘post-triggering’.


A Systematic Review of the Health and Social Effects of Menstrual Hygiene Management. PLOTS ONE 8(4) 2013.

Sumpter C, Torondel B

Background - Differing approaches to menstrual hygiene management (MHM) have been associated with a wide range of health and psycho-social outcomes in lower income settings. This paper systematically collates, summarizes and critically appraises the available evidence. Methods - Following the PRISMA guidelines a structured search strategy was used to identify articles investigating the effects of MHM on health and psycho-social outcomes. The search was conducted in May 2012 and had no date limit. Data was extracted and quality of methodology was independently assessed by two researchers. Where no measure of effect was provided, but sufficient data were available to calculate one, this was undertaken. Meta-analysis was conducted where sufficient data were available. Results - 14 articles were identified which looked at health outcomes, primarily reproductive tract infections (RTI). 11 articles were identified investigating associations between MHM, social restrictions and school attendance. MHM was found to be associated with RTI in 7 papers. Methodologies however varied greatly and overall quality was low. Meta-analysis of a subset of studies found

UN: Billions still will lack sanitation by 2015

By 2015, almost one-third of the global population will remain without access to improved sanitation - which is U.N.-speak for hygienic toilet facilities. That would fall well short of a key global Millennium Development Goal [MDG], which is detailed in a new report published jointly by the World Health Organization and the U.N. Children’s Fund. Bruce Gordon, the acting coordinator for water, sanitation and health at the World Health Organization, said Monday’s report was published as a wake-up call. “Now, with the period of the MDGs coming to a close - I think it is in about 1,000 days or so - we are seeing very clearly that unless we do something very differently, the sanitation goal is going to be missed.”

The U.N.’s MDG, number 7, aims to reduce by half by 2015 the number of people without access to clean, reliable toilet facilities - compared to numbers reported in 1990. According to the report, if the current trend persists, 2.4 billion people will still be living without improved sanitation. They say the MDG target will be missed by 8 percent. Gordon said a major drive needs to be made to get the numbers on track. One of the key efforts, he said, needs to be made in rural areas. Gordon noted that a lot of money is spent on complex urban sanitation systems in cities, at the expense of those in rural areas who have nothing. “There is a big problem in rural areas with sanitation, especially with open defecation. [We need to] ensure that some of the scarce resources are directed toward those areas where we have a big problem, and that just means very basic sanitation,” said Gordon.

What costs the world $260 billion each year?:By Guy Hutton

More people today have access to a cell phone than to a clean toilet. At the current rate of progress the world will miss the global sanitation target for 2015 by over half a billion people. And while the drinking water global target was met last year, nearly a billion people still lack access to an improved drinking water source. Most of these statistics are well known by water and sanitation experts, and the wider development community. Perhaps, less known is the economic cost of the water and sanitation crisis. Poor sanitation and water supply result in economic losses estimated at US$260 billion annually in developing countries, or 5% of their GDP. The benefits from meeting the water supply and sanitation (WSS) MDG targets combined equal over US$60 billion annually and combined WSS interventions have a US$4.3 return for every dollar invested.

The main contributor to benefits from universal coverage of sanitation and water supply is the value of time savings from closer access and reduced queuing for sanitation and water supply facilities, which account for more than 70% of total benefits globally. This provides a clear case for investing in water supply and sanitation services as opposed to only in health measures like vaccination programs. Additional benefits that are not consistently estimated due to lack of underlying data as well as difficulties in converting some impacts to monetary values include improved water Quality in lakes, rivers and coastal waters, a net gain in usable land space due to isolating human excreta, the increase in property values, and tourism revenues.




Current Issue: Africa Water & Sanitation & Hygiene March-April 2017 Vol.12 No.2