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South Sudan: Sanitation Surveying in a Post Conflict Country

 

talksEnumerators practice use of the tablets

Establishing a random sample of the population for a survey on sanitation services usually begins with data from a country’s statistics bureau.

But what if this data is disputed or does not exist? This was the dilemma facing USAID’s Sustainable Water and Sanitation in Africa (SUWASA) as it set out to survey sanitation services in Juba, the capital of South Sudan, a new country rebuilding after years of strife.

The solution involved local and international experts, satellite images, and 24 local university students. The survey was required as part of an effort undertaken by SUWASA, a regional program funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development to provide support to the government of the Republic of South Sudan as it works to improve water and sanitation services in the cities of Juba, Wau and Maridi.

In Juba, SUWASA’s goal is to work with the city council to identify potential investments in sanitation improvements. Identifying these investment possibilities relied on an understanding of the city’s sanitation problems, including access limitations and hygiene behaviors.

To ascertain these details, a random survey sample of the population was needed. But establishing a survey sample required population and boundary information.

Though Juba has grown in population and physical size, details of the growth were disputed. City population estimates ranged from 500,000 to a million. No map existed that showed the city’s geographic boundaries and its population settlement patterns or densities.

SUWASA settled on an innovative but simple solution to
the dilemma.

A team was assembled that included experts in geographic information systems, sanitation engineering,
social research, and local geography. The team also included technical staff from the city’s sanitation directorate and 24 University of Juba students and graduates, who were familiar with the city.

With the help of satellite images from the USAID Geo Center in Washington, D.C., the team set out to define Juba’s geographic boundaries. Images for 2002, 2007 and 2012 were examined. The information showed that the city had grown by 330 percent to 71.22 square kilometers in 2012 from 21.55 square kilometers in 2002.

To establish the city’s population, the team used USAID’s satellite images to determine the typology of settlements within the city boundaries. Five types of settlements were identified. From these categories, the team extrapolated the number of households by calculating a measure of household density per hectare.

With boundaries and population established, the job of surveying could begin.

SUWASA sent the university students and graduates to collect data from a sample of 1,042 households. They used Electronic Project Observation Reportingand Tracking (ePORT), an approach designed by Tetra Tech. The data was collected on iPads and transmitted electronically to a data analysis center.

As a result of SUWASA’s efforts Juba now has a baseline for establishing a random survey sample and maps detailing the city’s geographical and population growth. Most importantly for future of sanitation improvements, Juba has an understanding of the condition of the city’s sanitation services.

SUWASA sent the university students and graduates to collect data from a sample of 1,042 households. They used Electronic Project Observation Reporting and Tracking (ePORT), an approach designed by Tetra Tech. The data was collected on iPads and transmitted electronically to a data analysis center.


As a result of SUWASA’s endeavors, Juba now has a baseline for establishing a random survey sample and
maps detailing the city’s geographical and population growth.


Most importantly for future of sanitation improvements, Juba has an understanding of the condition of the city’s sanitation services.

Establishing a random sample of the population for a survey on sanitation services usually begins with data from a country’s statistics bureau.


But what if this data is disputed or does not exist? This was the dilemma facing USAID’s Sustainable Water and Sanitation in Africa (SUWASA) as it set out to survey sanitation services in Juba, the capital of South Sudan, a new country rebuilding after years of strife.

The solution involved local and international experts, satellite images, and 24 local university students. The survey was required as part of an effort undertaken by SUWASA, a regional program funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development to provide support to the government of the Republic of South Sudan as it works to improve water and sanitation services in the cities of Juba, Wau and Maridi.

In Juba, SUWASA’s goal is to work with the city council to identify potential investments in sanitation improvements. Identifying these investment possibilities relied on an understanding of the city’s sanitation problems, including access limitations and hygiene behaviors.

To ascertain these details, a random survey sample of the population was needed. But establishing a survey sample required population and boundary information.

Though Juba has grown in population and physical size, details of the growth were disputed. City population estimates ranged from 500,000 to a million. No map existed that showed the city’s geographic boundaries and its population settlement patterns or densities.

SUWASA settled on an innovative but simple solution to the dilemma.

A team was assembled that included experts in geographic information systems, sanitation engineering, social research, and local geography. The team also included technical staff from the city’s sanitation directorate and 24 University of Juba students and graduates, who were familiar with the city.

With the help of satellite images from the USAID Geo Center in Washington, D.C., the team set out to define Juba’s geographic boundaries. Images for 2002, 2007 and 2012 were examined. The information showed that the city had grown by 330 percent to 71.22 square kilometers in 2012 from 21.55 square kilometers in 2002.

To establish the city’s population, the team used USAID’s satellite images to determine the typology
of settlements within the city boundaries. Five types of settlements were identified. From these categories, the team extrapolated the number of households by calculating a measure of household density per hectare. With boundaries and population established, the job of surveying could begin.

SUWASA sent the university students and graduates to collect data from a sample of 1,042 households. They used Electronic Project Observation Reporting and Tracking (ePORT), an approach designed by Tetra Tech. The data was collected on iPads and transmitted electronically to a data analysis center.

As a result of SUWASA’s efforts Juba now has a baseline for establishing a random survey sample and maps detailing the city’s geographical and population growth.

Most importantly for future of sanitation improvements, Juba has an understanding of the condition of the city’s sanitation services. SUWASA sent the university students and graduates to collect data from a sample of 1,042 households. They used Electronic Project Observation Reporting and Tracking (ePORT), an approach designed by Tetra Tech. The data was collected on iPads and transmitted electronically to a data analysis center. As a result of SUWASA’s endeavors, Juba now has a baseline for establishing a random survey sample and maps detailing the city’s geographical and population growth.

Most importantly for future of sanitation improvements, Juba has an understanding of the condition of the city’s sanitation services.

 

                           


            

Current Issue: Africa Water & Sanitation & Hygiene March-April 2017 Vol.12 No.2