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More projects are earmarked for implementation under the World Bank funded WaSSIP – Additional Financing (WaSSIP-AF)

Lake Victoria North Water Services Board is in the process of finalizing major water and sanitation infrastructural projects under the Nzoia Cluster Phase III Programme, which commenced in early 2011 with financial support from the World Bank and the Government of the Republic of Kenya under the Water and Sanitation Services Improvement (WaSSIP) Programme.

The WaSSIP programme was designed to provide major facelifts to various small cluster towns within the Board’s area which have suffered from perennial lack of water and inadequate sanitation. The WASSIP project had two phases with the first phase aimed at supporting institutional strengthening measures in the Water Services Providers and carrying out infrastructural developments with the second phase aiming at enhancing infrastructure investments to rehabilitate and expand water provision in urban areas.


The objectives of the WASSSIP project include to increase access to reliable affordable and sustainable water supply and sanitation services as well as to improve the water and wastewater services in areas of jurisdiction of LVNWSB. The objectives are set to be achieved through an array of approaches including rehabilitating selected existing water production, transmission, storage and distribution facilities and waste water collection, treatment and disposal facilities, as well as construction of new water treatment works in identified towns within the LVNWSB jurisdiction areas.

The other strategy is to expand piped water supply services to underserved areas through extension of primary and secondary distribution, including service expansion in urban slums through a balanced program involving communities in the decision making process and lastly, refining and strengthening the institutional structure, emphasizing on increasing accountability and transparency of the institutional, governance and management framework. One of the biggest beneficiaries of the programme is Mumias Municipality and its environs. The Mumias Water Supply project, which has been under implementation through the WaSSIP programme at a cost of Kshs1.6 billion is in its final stages and is scheduled to be complete and fully operational by the end of this year, 2013. The completion of the project, which is also targeted to benefit the small urban centers along the main pipeline and the adjoining rural areas, will see an increase in production of potable water from the current 1,618m3/d to 15,000m3 per day against, enough to serve over 150,000 people by the design horizon of up to the year 2025. The project was preceded by rehabilitation of the old water supply system to ensure there was no interruption of supply during the project period, for those who were
already connected to the existing network. In Kimilili town, the Kimilili Water Supply Project has been undergoing construction under the same the WaSSIP programme, is almost complete at a cost of over Kshs 281 million. The project will expand supply to Kimilili municipality and the adjacent rural areas of Ndivisi, Bituyu, Misikhu and Lugulu. Under the project, the old water system which was constructed in 1973 with a capacity of 2,782m3/day, has undergone expansion and rehabilitation.

big treatmentIn Lessos Trading Centre, the Lessos Water Supply project is complete and operational. The same is the case with The Lumakanda Kipkaren centers where a new water supply project is at its final stages of completion at a cost of over Kshs 260 million.

In Eldoret town, The Chebara/Chebiamit treatm In Eldoret town, The Chebara/Chebiamit treatm works, the main source of water for Eldoret town and its environs, has been expanded to produce an additional 10,000m3 per day, raising the total production of water from the Chebara treatment Works alone from the current 18,000 m3 to 28,000 m3. In addition, there has been expansion of the reticulation system in Eldoret to expand supply of water in Eldoret town.

The other towns that have also benefited from the WaSSIP one programme are Kaimosi, Jeptulu, Serem and Hamisi where similar works have been ongoing and are due for completion by 30th June 2013.

Following the successful implementation of the first phase of the project, the World Bank has granted the Board Additional Finances through the Ministry of Water and Irrigation for implementation of more projects. The Financing agreement for WaSSIP – AF has already been signed and the Board is in the process of rolling out the projects through the procurement procedures. Eldoret town, the heartbeat of the agriculturally rich
North Rift, is the biggest beneficiary of the second phase of the World Bank funding. Also considered for social reasons were Investments for signindigenous people (IP) Sengwer and informal settlements in Eldoret and Mumias towns. A project to serve the Sengwer upstream of Kapcherop Treatment Works was also included. Some of the major projects to be implanted under this second phase of the WaSSIP programme include: Expansion of Kapsoya Treatment Works and Ellegerini pipeline in Uasin Gishu County, Kipkarren dam Water Supply Project, Extensions for Kapsowar/ Kapcherop Water Distribution network, Electricity generation from Eldoret Waste Water Treatment Plant. Others are Rehabilitation of Kwanza Water Supply Project and construction of Sanitation facilities for informal settlements in Mumias and Eldoret Towns. This programme shall also undertake drilling and equipping of drought mitigation boreholes in a number of drought affected parts of the Board. This will come together with a package Treatment Units and Supply of Plastic Tanks to mitigate on droughts.

riverKapcherop trading centre is set to benefit with expanded water supply to the town. The proposed schemes for expansion of water supply to Kapcherop come after the just recent completion of Kapcherop Kapsowar Water Supply project which was implemented by Lake Victoria North Water Services Board with funding from the World Bank and the GoK under the Water and Sanitation Improvement Programme – WaSSIP. The planned expansion programme shall be financed under WaSSIP – AF, a continuity programme from the initial WaSSIP programme.

The projected water demand for the year 2025 for Kapcherop is 411m3/d. The present Kapcherop Water Supply Works has a net capacity to treat and supply 570m3/d. Additional water demand of 35m3/d to supply the extended areas up to year 2025 can be met by the Kapcherop Treatment Plant. To supply water from Kapcehrop Treatment Plant to the high level zones, two alternatives have been proposed:-

To pump treated water from the Clear Water Tank (El 2380m alms) at Kapcherop Treatment Plant via 80mm dia pipe, length 2.9km to a high level 20m3 capacity storage tank situated on slopes of Kiptaberr Hill at around 2490m amsl. From here the water will be gravitated to the Supply areas - Kapkanyar Primary School via 50 mm dia uPVC class D pipe, Councilor’s Area via 100mm dia uPVC pipe and Penon Centre (2420m) via 80mm dia uPVC pipes. To save on costs the proposed masonry tank of 20m3 could be replaced with plastic tanks.

Water supply in Eldoret; the long path to success

Eldoret town has come a long way in water and sanitation services provision. The town, an agricultural centre situated 321km North –West of Nairobi along the Kenya- Uganda highway, is currently served by the Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company Limited, one of the Water Services Providers contracted by the LVNWSB to serve on its behalf. Eldowas was established in 1997 by the then Eldoret Municipal council to manage water services provision on its behalf. However, the company started operations in the year 2000. With the operationalization of the Water Act 2002 which drastically changed water service provision landscape in Kenya putting water services provision in the preview of the Water Services Boards, Eldowas became an agent of the LVNWSB charged with the mandate of service provision in Eldoret town and its environs, a function the company has executed effectively since its formation, thanks to its multiple sources of water and modern supply system. In deed Eldoret was one of the towns that hardly had any water shortages in few years ago.

However, due to rapid population growth and increasing demand for water in Eldoret town, the company in 2009 began to ration water to its customers to the chagrins of its customers. During the same time, plans had been put in place to address the situation and revert to the old
of regularity in water supply, Chabera treatment works expansion of works was rolled out and it was hoped the situation would improve upon the completion of the project in September 2012.

According to the Kenya Bureau of Statistics, Eldoret is one of the towns with the fastest population growth rates in the country. This is attributable to centrality of location in the expansive Rift Valley making it the business hub of the region. In addition, the town is a pathway to the neighboring towns of Uganda and South Sudan.

The History Water supply in Eldoret

The first water supply in Eldoret was developed by the colonial government in 1928 on River Ellegerini, a tributary of Sosiani river that passes through Eldoret town, in the Kaptagat catchment area (followed in 1933 by a power generator installed by the East African Power and Lighting Company, the forerunner of the power distribution monopoly, Kenya Power and Lighting Company). The Ellegerini in-take had a capacity of 2,300 m3 per day and took water to the Kapsoya Treatment Works also constructed in 1928 and upgraded in 1981. Kapsoya currently receives very little flow, although its capacity is 3,450 m3 per day due to deteriorated pipe works and illegal draw-off along the pipe route.

In 1960 the Two Rivers’ Dam was constructed with a capacity of 6,100 m3 using gravity flow in the same area. The Ellegerini in-take was upgraded to 3,400 m3 in 1981 and in 1987 the Ellegerini dam with a capacity of 9,000 m3 per day was constructed. All these dams together carry 14,950 m3 per day to the Sosiani Water Treatment Works constructed in 1960 and upgraded to a capacity of 14,950 m3 per day in 1986.building

The latest dam to be developed is the Moiben dam with a capacity of 26,000 m3 per day constructed on River Chebara in Marakwet district in 1993-1997 periods. It supplies the Chebara Treatment Works, constructed in 1995 with a capacity of 26,000 m3 per day but is currently supplying 18,000 m3 of water per day. In terms of access to potable water, the above statistics and historical reasons translate to 60% of the population served by piped water and only 40% served by a sewerage system. Majority of people served by Eldoret Water and Sanitation (ELDOWAS) Company, are through domestic individual connections. The company has however lately adopted water kiosks as alternative connection arrangements in order to access more and more. The kiosks are meant to serve the poor majority who cannot afford the water connections. The company also has significant number of industries and institutions including academic initiations and hospitals in its customer list. It is further expected that many more access the services through these institutional connections.

Existing water supply:

The service area currently has three water sources. Ellegerini river in-take has a maximum capacity of 3,450m3/day with the Kapsoya treatment plant current production capacity being 500m3/day. Two rivers dams has a maximum capacity of 14,950m3/day with Sosiani treatment plants current production of 14,950m3/day. On the other hand, Moiben dam has maximum capacity of 26000m3/day with the Chebara treatment plant currently producing a capacity of 18,000m3/day. The total maximum capacity of the three sources is 44,000m3/ day with the total current production capacity being 32,450m3/day.

Sewerage Services

Sewerage service in the town is however wanting. Majority of the residents in the town use the pit latrines. The existing sewer lines only connect to very small number of customers, with a few using septic tanks.

Water demand

Present water demand within the service areas is estimated at 40,106m3/day. Last year 2012, the population of 421,565 had a water deficit of 9,706m3/day. While the production was 32,450m3/day, the demand was 42,156m3/day.

viewIn 2014 the population is projected to be 473,670people. With the production being 39,450m3/day and a demand of 47,367m3/day, the town is expected to have a deficit of 7,917m3/day. A similar projection forecasts the population of the town in the next three years, 2016 to 532,246, with a demand of 53,224m3/day served by a production of 39,450m3/day bringing the deficit to 13,774m3/day. Finally, in 2018, the population of the town is projected to A section of the Chebara Water Treatment Works. The treatment works was recently expanded to produce more water to meet the demands for Eldoret town be 597,998 people, with a demand of 59,799m3 of water per day served by production of 39,450m3/day causing a deficit of 20,349m3/day. All of the above data is based on a per capita consumption of 100 liters per day and a population growth projection at a rate of 6%p.a.water storage

In order to cope with the growing demand for Water and Sanitation Services, it has become imperative to find alternative sources of water to address the anticipated deficit. Lake Victoria North Water Services Board has therefore sourced for funds from its development partners, in particular the World Bank, which shall together with the Government of Kenya finance the proposed Ellegrinini
and Kipkarren water supply projects, the two projects which upon completion shall contribute immensely towards addressing the anticipated gaps. The projects are intended to be rolled out before the end of the year.

The Ellegrini water project, which upon completion shall have a production capacity of 9,000m3/day, shall have a production costs of up to $3,500,000 USD. The annual Operation and Maintenance costs have been estimated to be Kshs.14, 816,540 per year and shall produce enough water to serve a population of 500,000 people with an annual revenue collection of 112,675,500.

The Kipkarren water project which is been designed to produce enough water to serve a population of 500,000 people, will have a production capacity of 12,000m3/ day and an annual operation and maintenance shall be implemented at a cost of $9,000,000, and shall have an annual operation and maintenance costs of Khs.20, 781,560. The annual revenue collection is expected to be 125,195,000 as the per capita costs amount to $20USD.




Current Issue: Africa Water & Sanitation & Hygiene March-April 2017 Vol.12 No.2