Towards water supply sustainability
The Coast Water Services Board (CWSB) is a parastatal under the Ministry of Water and Irrigation responsible for the provision of Water and Sewerage Services in the Coast Region. It is one of the eight Water Services Boards in Kenya, formed during the implementation of the Water Sector Reforms. Coast Water Services Board was gazetted on the 27th February, 2004. Its area of jurisdiction coincides with the administrative boundaries of the Coast Region covering six counties namely Mombasa, Kilifi, Kwale, Taita-Taveta, Lamu and Tana River.
To be a Water Services Board that provides adequate world class water and sanitation services to the residents of the Coast Region.
To ensure provision of efficient, sustainable and affordable water and sanitation services through asset development and by contracting or registering competent and qualified water service providers.
Core Functions of CWSB
The core functions of the Coast Water Services Board include:
• Development and management of water supply andsewerage infrastructure in the Coast Region.
• Holding or leasing of water and sewerage assets within the Coast Region.
• Contracting Water Service Providers within its areaof jurisdiction.
• Ensuring that the Water Service Providers comply with licensing requirements.
• Assuming the responsibility of Water Service Provider as a last resort.
Provision of Water and Sewerage Services
In line with the Water Act 2002, the Board does not provide services directly, but through contracted agents or Water Service Providers. The Board has contracted seven Water Service Providers (WSPs) to provide water and sewerage services in towns and urban centers. These are:
• Mombasa Water Supply and Sanitation Services Company (MOWASSCO)
• Malindi Water and Sewerage Company (MAWASCO)
• Kilifi-Mariakani Water and Sewerage Company (KIMAWASCO)
• Kwale Water and Sewerage Company (KWAWASCO)
• TAVEVO Water and Sewerage Company
• Lamu Water and Sewerage Company (LAWASCO)
• Tana Water and Sewerage Company (TAWASCO)
Bulk Water Supply and Ongoing Improvements
Coast Water Services Board operates a bulk water supply system which supplies water to five service provision areas: Mombasa, Kilifi-Mariakani, Malindi, Kwale and Voi. The bulk water supply accounts for about 96% of all the water production within the Coast Water Services Board area of jurisdiction. The system, which comprises of four independent sources, is operated and managed by the Board as an integrated system. The total bulk water production is about 110,000 m3/day against a total water demand in the region of about 490,000m3/day.
a) Water Schemes comprising the Coast Bulk Water Supply
The Coast Bulk Water Supply comprises of four independent Schemes namely Baricho Water Supply, the Mzima Pipeline, the Marere Pipeline and the Tiwi Bore Holes. These schemes traverse the Board area and converge towards Mombasa, the longest being the Mzima pipeline which is 220 km, followed by Baricho (104 km), then Marere which is 45 km and the Tiwi Bore Holes which are about 20 km from Mombasa Island.
The infrastructure is old and dilapidated but has stood the test of time. It is amazing that the systems are still delivering water today despite the many challenges in their maintenance. The Marere system was constructed in 1923, the Mzima Pipeline in 1957, while the Baricho and Tiwi Schemes were completed in 1980.
In order to address the challenges of supplying water through dilapidated infrastructure the Coast Water Services Board, through the Ministry of Water & Irrigation and the Treasury, secured development partner funding from the French Development Agency (AFD) and the World Bank (IDA). The Board is currently undertaking major rehabilitation of its infrastructure in order to restore the systems and extend their years of service.
b) Major Rehabilitation Works
The implementation of the projects under the Water and Sanitation Services Improvement Program (WaSSIP) is currently on-going and includes the following projects:
In the Coast Region, it is only Mombasa City which has sewerage services. However this covers only about 15% of the City on the West Mainland and some part of the Island. The rest of the City uses onsite sanitation systems comprising mainly of septic tanks and soak pits.
The Kipevu Sewarge system was constructed in 1952 by the then Public Works Department to serve housing estates in Changamwe and later extended in 1957 to serve rail-served Industrial area, including the Oil Refinery, and Magongo Estates. The system was expanded between 1988 and 2000. The rehabilitation works on this system, which were done through the Water and Sanitation Services Improvement Progamme (WaSSIP), are almost complete.
Other Planned activities in line with Vision 2030
In order to address the shortfall in the supply of water and sewerage services within the Coast Region, substantial investment is required. The Board in conjunction with the Ministry of Water & Irrigation shall continue to source for funding to implement various projects in the region. The Coast Water Services Board is therefore making preparations for additional investments, needed to address both current and future needs. In this respect the Board is in the process of preparing for following activities:
• Undertaking the Coast region water supply Master Plan
• Carrying out the sewerage master plan for Mombasa.
• Rehabilitation of the Kizingo waste water treatment plant.
• Design and Construction of the Second Baricho Wells (Northern Bank) and associated pipelines.
• Construction of the Mazeras – Nguu Tatureservoirs interconnection.
• Preparation for the Second Mzima Pipeline project.This is one of the Vision 2030 flagship projects and requires an estimated funding of USD400Million.